Wednesday, August 27, 2008


These materials were prepared co‑operatively under the Training and Support Programme for School Headteachers in Africa in the 1990s. They were updated considerably in Guyana in 2000 and again in 2008 to meet the needs of the Guyanese educational context.

Governments in developing Commonwealth countries wishing to reproduce or adapt the materials in whole or in part in any language should inform the Commonwealth Secretariat which may be able to offer some assistance in doing so.

For further information, write to the Director of the Education Programme, Commonwealth Secretariat, London.


Education Programme
Human Resource Development Group
Marlborough House
Pall Mall
United Kingdom



National Centre for Educational Resource Development
3, Battery Road,

Prepared for publication by the MPU, NCERD
Originally designed and formatted by Geoffrey Wadsley.
Updated design and format by NCERD staff in partnership with

© Copyright Commonwealth Secretariat & Ministry of Education, NCERD Guyana 2008
Notes on Assessment
Please note that each of the unit contains two kinds of activities as follows:

Notes on reflections and activities

1. Reflection – You will see these from time to time throughout the text. They are in white type and highlighted in black. E.g. Reflection. You are not required to submit your thoughts on these issues to your Master Trainer. You may make notes if you wish but they are your own personal reflections on the issues raised.

2. Activities – These are formal assessments which you will have to submit to your Master Trainer as part of your portfolio. You should number them in the same way as the units and carry out the activity as stated.


Your first step should be to examine the following list of contents to select the order you may wish to study the units. At the start of each unit, there is an introduction and a set of learning outcomes which should enable you to decide quite quickly whether the material is likely to be of value to you. However, please remember that the assignment and examinations will be based on the whole module.

Module 1: Self‑Development for Educational Leaders

Unit 1: School mission, values and objectives 6 hours
Unit 2: Styles of leadership and management 4 hours
Unit 3: Needs identification 6 hours
Unit 4: Job analysis 4 hours
Unit 5: Time management 4 hours

24 hours total

This module is divided into five units.

Unit 1: School mission, values and objectives
In this unit you will learn why and how your school should identify its mission and its values, and how you may express these in terms of practical objectives.

Unit 2: Styles of leadership and management
Here you will identify various leadership and management styles and how each is likely to produce different results: this should enable you to reflect on your own approach to school leadership and how you may improve it.

Unit 3: Needs identification
In planning the development of your school and the activities which you organise there, it is important you recognise that many groups, in addition to your pupils, have expectations and needs. In this unit you will learn who these groups are and how you may recognise their needs.

Unit 4: Job analysis
The purpose of this unit is to enable you to analyse the jobs of those employed within your school, and to produce clear job descriptions which enable everyone to understand their own roles and tasks, and the relation­ships involved.

Unit 5: Time management
Time is the one resource we all have the same amount of, yet some people use it far better than others. Through this unit you will learn how to make the best use of your time as a school headteacher

Self‑Development for Educational Leaders

Module 1

We think you will enjoy Module 1. It is self- contained and you should complete the entire module including the activities.

Schools today are complex organisations to manage. This is due to:

¨ the difficulties of providing for a wide range of abilities and interests among students
¨ the challenges of providing learners with relevant and usable skills for success in an increasingly complex society.

Overseeing the task of meeting the expanded range of school objectives and processes is the Headteacher. Thus, while in the past, proficiency and success in classroom teaching were important criteria for promotion to Headship, today a wider range of skills is also necessary.

Headships now involve, to a large extent, the function of leadership. As we suggested at the start of the general introduction, it is now widely recognised and agreed that one of the key factors affecting school effectiveness is the nature and quality of the leadership and management provided by each school Headteacher. Therefore, the purpose of this module is to encourage all Headteachers to:

¨ reflect on what they do and how, why they do it and with what success
¨ discover ways in which they themselves might become better leaders and managers and thus be responsible for the development of more effective schools.

Individual study time: 24 hours

After working through this module you should be able to:

· appreciate the significant role of the mission statement, values and objectives in the leadership and management of the school
· formulate a meaningful mission statement as well as a set of values and objectives for your school
· devise effective strategies for realising the mission, values and objectives of your school
· use appropriate styles of leadership and management
· understand how the needs of the students, school authority, nation, community, staff Headteacher and school can be determined
· conduct useful job analyses
· manage your time more effectively.

School Mission, Values and Objectives

Unit 1

The Headteacher of a school should play a leading role in improving the quality of teaching and learning. As a Headteacher, you will appreciate that it is your duty and responsibility to ensure that your school is an achieving school, meeting its objectives in an effective and efficient manner. It is therefore in your interest to search for ways and means of improving yourself as a leader and manager. One way of improving your management and leadership performance is to clarify the purposes and directions of your school. These purposes and directions are normally communicated in a statement of missions, values and objectives.

The aim of this unit is to explain how to formulate a clear mission as well as a statement of values and objectives for your school.

Individual study time: 6 hours

Learning outcomes
By the end of this unit, you should be able to:
· define the terms mission, values and objectives
explain the role of clearly defined mission, values and objectives in the leadership of the school
indicate how classroom actions can be derived from a school objective
draft a mission statement as well as a set of values and objectives for your school
indicate the importance of communicating the mission, values and objectives to staff and other stakeholders
suggest strategies for realising the mission, values and objectives of your school

Let us clarify the terminology we will use here. There are several terms which are used to indicate the purpose and direction of a school. Consider the following terms: philosophy, mission, goals, aims, objectives and targets.

The Concise Oxford Dictionary describes the meaning of the word 'philos­ophy' in several ways, including: a system of principles for the conduct of life. Such a concept is useful both for each of us as individuals and for each school. But as the term 'philosophy' may be seen as too complex, an alterna­tive commonly used is the term 'mission', and its expression as a 'mission statement'. All Guyanese schools must have Mission Statements.

The differences between the terms 'goals', ‘aims’, 'objectives' and 'targets' lie mainly in the degree to which the destination we want to reach is specified. Thus 'goals' and ‘aims’ may suggest a broad vision, 'targets' an exact position, with 'objectives' somewhere in between. There is really not much to choose between them, and you should feel free to make your own choice. Here we will use the term 'aims' to mean a set of statements each of which provides a clear indication of what the school wishes to achieve, and which together satisfy the principles included in the mission statement. Objectives are very specific statements describing positions which will be achieved within an agreed span of time.

Why Prepare Aims and Objectives?
We use objectives to chart and lead the course of our organization. They indicate the kinds and levels of performance or outputs at which we will aim in order to realise the overarching goals of the school. The rationale behind their use is that, if we decide in advance, the outputs that we wish to achieve we can take steps to achieve them and determine if they are achieved. Therefore, aims and objectives serve as guides to specific actions and standards for measuring performance. Because of these two roles, they also help motivate staff to achieve the goals of the school.

Therefore an important role of the Headteacherteacher is to:
· devise in collaboration with the staff, school board and other stakeholders, the aims and objectives of the school
· monitor the translation of aims and objectives into appropriate action to meet them.

Kinds of Objectives
Objectives can be classified according to a number of factors. One important is the degree of immediacy in realising the performance they describe.

General Objectives
Some objectives such as school, year level and unit objectives address performance which can be realised at the end of an extended programme of teaching and learning carried on inside and outside the classroom. These objectives are known as general objectives. Below is a sample of general objectives.

School Objective:
Year Five – End of Programme Objective
Students will have a strong work ethos
Students will be able to develop interesting story lines.
Year 1 – End of Unit Objective
Students will demonstrate competence in story writing

Think about the general steps which need to be taken in order to realise the behaviour stated in any one of the objectives in Table 1.

To bring about the performance described, we need to gradually develop behaviours, which serve as building blocks for the realization of the general objective. These behaviours are stated in what we often term enabling objectives. Thus, in order to prepare students to develop interesting story lines, we must first prepare and realise objectives directed at ensuring that they know what a story line is and how to write a story line.

Learning Objectives
Some objectives provide specific guidance for learning. These are termed learning objectives. They state not only the exact behaviours which students must demonstrate but also the conditions under which they must do so and the criteria for success. Thus, at the level of a Primary Grade Three lesson, an objective designed to help students think creatively could be:

Learning Objective: After listening carefully to the reading of the story children will be able to suggest a suitable alternative ending to Jack and the Beanstalk.

By now you will have realised that objectives can be placed on a continuum ranging from the general to the specific. At the overall level of the school, objectives address performance which can be realised at the end of an extended period of study. At the level of the lesson, they are likely to represent measurable, specific behaviour. Thus, the closer we get to the level of classroom interaction, the more specific the objective, the more useful the guidance it is likely to give.

Objectives can also be classified according to the kind of behaviours they address. These are normally directed at the development for mental, emotional and physical abilities.

Realising Mission, Values and Aims
Collectively, the mission, values and aims represent the purposes of the school.
Realising them requires a series of actions led by the Headteacher of the school.

Each headship or leadership approach discussed in this course represents a strategy which can lead to the achievement of the ultimate purposes of the school. Nevertheless, we will here consider a few general points which you need to observe if you are to achieve those purposes.

Strategies for Promoting Mission and Aims
As Headteacher, you are a key catalyst in the process of fulfilling the mission and objectives of the school. A the same time, full understanding of and support for these purposes by your staff, school board and other stakeholders is important. Therefore. You should:

· Involve your staff, School Board and Parent Teachers’ Association in the formulation of these purposes. You should present your draft mission and aims to all of them as well as to other stakeholders.
· Communicate the mission, values and aims to all members of the school community.
· Involve staff, P.T.A., School Board and other stakeholders in determining and implementing strategies to realise these goals.

You must also demonstrate your own commitment to the mission and aims because it will have a positive influence on others in your school. You will also need to provide clarification and guidance in the process of fulfilling these school goals.

Activity 1.1
Consider your own school. What would you say is the philosophy or mission of your school? At this stage do not try to write a complete statement.

In undertaking the above activity, we hope you appreciated that a school mission should include such things as:

· the promotion in the pupils of an interest in learning and the skills needed to learn
· the acquisition by the pupils of relevant knowledge, skills and attitudes
· the provision of opportunities for pupils to participate in and contribute to their culture
· a willingness on the part of the pupils and staff to serve both the school and the wider community
· regional and national educational goals

Above all the mission statement of your school should reflect national goals.

Your mission statement will be based upon your own values and those of your staff as well as Guyana as a whole. They will be what you want to pass on to the next generation. Values are guidelines for behaviour, and they govern each person's actions and attitudes. Values are learnt through experience, education and observation. It is necessary for the Headteacher to plan consciously and deliberately the school programmes that promote the values a society approves and wishes to uphold.

Activity 1.2
List some of the values you yourself hold and believe your school should seek to promote. Check whether your initial ideas about your school mission gave sufficient expression to your values. If you feel there are more values that could be included, then indicate what they are.

Your list probably included the following values: acceptable behaviour, reliability, honesty, efficiency, punctuality, diligence, politeness, courtesy, fairness, self‑discipline, tolerance, courage, respect for the dignity of labour, respect for other people and their property, good sportsmanship, impartiality, perseverance, respect for legitimate authority, public spirited­ness, cleanliness, justice, etc.

As a Headteacher, you will almost certainly wish to ensure that the values the school cherishes pervade all the teaching / learning activities including the co‑curricular ones. In this way the gap between what a school says it does and what it actually does may be reduced.

School aims
A general statement about a school mission may be explained more fully in terms of aims. School aims indicate, in fairly specific terms, what the school intends to achieve.

Activity 1.3
1) Does your school have a set of aims?
2) To what extent would you say they are comprehensive and clear?
3) What areas should a set of school objectives cover?

School aims should take into account the needs of the pupils, the staff, the community and the nation. Pupils' needs include the desire for a complete education that prepares them for the world of work; the fostering of creativity to facilitate problem‑solving; strengthening their abilities to learn independently; the provision of a variety of co‑curricular activities and opportunities for them to enjoy and learn about their cultural heritage. Furthermore, pupils need opportunities to develop themselves as individ­uals; an environment that encourages them to develop their leadership qualities and inter‑personal skills, within a culture of tolerance.

In addition to the needs of the pupils, you need to be sensitive to the critical role that the staff play in achieving school aims. It is, therefore, important for you to ensure that your school aims address the following:

¨ The creation of an environment that enables both the pupils and the staff of the school to experience success.
¨ The provision of sufficient facilities, equipment and materials to facilitate the attainment of these aims.
¨ The creation of organisational structures within the school that will allow both pupils and staff to realise their expectations.
¨ The provision of opportunities for professional growth for the staff.

In formulating the school aims, it is also important to consider the needs of the community. These needs include the educational expectations of parents for their children; the promotion of good citizenship; respect for community values; and parental involvement in school programmes. Furthermore, school aims must reflect the national goals of Guyana which may include the development of human resources, the promotion of a common national identity and respect for the dignity of labour.

Formulating a school mission statement and aims

A school mission statement
Each school must have a statement of its own mission. In designing the statement for your school you will need to consult your staff and address the following key questions:

1. What is the purpose of this school? Why are the pupils and staff here?
What knowledge and skills do our pupils need?
How does the school identify individual differences, abilities and capacities amongst the pupils, and how does it adjust methods, materials and programmes accordingly to foster individual development?

How does the school provide equality of opportunity for all its members?
What are the desired relationships between:

pupils and pupils,
pupils and teachers,
teachers and the Headteacher,
the Headteacher and the community?
What values does the school seek to promote?
How does the school prepare pupils to participate fully in the real world?
Consider your answers to the questions listed above and compare your responses to the current mission of your school.

You should discover that your school mission will emerge from a discussion of the responses to the questions cited above. If you do not already have a school mission statement, this activity should provide you with a guide as to how you and your staff may develop an appropriate one, or to reflect on the one you already have.

Mission Statement

The Mission of Crimson Grove Primary School is to provide a total learning experience designed to equip students with the knowledge, skills, competencies and attitudes necessary for developing themselves into productive citizens, developing their community and Guyana, coping with change and participating in life long learning.
In Guyanese schools, the Mission Statement and the Aims of the School are displayed in a prominent place where all can see them. Neither are of any use unless they are fully understood by the whole community and put into practice.

School aims
Having agreed upon your school mission, it becomes necessary to break it down into objectives that are realistic and achievable. You may find the questions posed below helpful in formulating a set of aims for your school.

1. What is our school trying to achieve?
2. For whom does our school exist?
3. How is our school trying to achieve its mission?
4. What resources does our school have to achieve its aims?
5. How will we know when we have accomplished our aims?
6. Are our aims realistic and achievable?
7. Do the aims reflect the values of our school?
8. Could our aims be improved?
Activity 1.4
Based on your answers to the questions posed above, formulate objectives for your school. Make sure that they cover all aspects of school life and are clearly and concisely expressed. Do not make your list too long!
Strategies for promoting selected values
Since a school plays a very crucial role in exposing pupils to selected values, the Headteacher and the staff need to devise strategies for promoting them.

Values may be promoted through:

• direct tuition or teaching during lessons;
• a well‑designed programme of guidance and counselling; family life
education, education for living or pastoral care;
• the content and conduct of assemblies;
• allowing pupils opportunities to develop their leadership qualities;
• ensuring that the school has a focus on learning;
• publicly honouring academic and practical achievement and by stressing their importance through the appropriate use of symbols, ceremonies, etc;
• exemplary behaviour by the staff.

It is likely that, in the same way as for the formulation of the school mission, you will need to work with your senior staff on the school objectives, before presenting them for further discussion to various groups involved with the school.

Consider how values are promoted in your school through the above. Reflect particularly on the last example.

Review and Evaluation

As the Headteacher, you should evaluate regularly the appropriateness and currency of your school mission and aims. You will need to do this in order to satisfy yourself that they are:

• realistic, achievable and well‑understood by all concerned
• giving direction to the school and staff
• meeting the needs of the school, pupils and the community
• being achieved.

Module 6, Monitoring School Effectiveness provides suggestions as to how you may set about carrying out an evaluation exercise.

In this unit we have explained the importance of the school mission, values and aims which should guide all school activities. Furthermore, sugges­tions on how to formulate and realise the school mission, values and aims, and the need to review and evaluate them regularly, have been made. As the Headteacher, you should ensure that your school has a clear mission and a set of aims which reflect it.
Self-Assessment Exercise
1. In your own words, define the following terms:
a. school mission
b. school values
c. school aims.
2. Explain the role of the mission, values and aims in the management of the school.
3. Indicate how you can derive classroom actions from a school aim.
4. Explain why it is important to communicate your school mission, values and objectives to staff and other stakeholders?
You will probably have some of the following in your answers:-

1. Your definitions should encompass the following ideas.

a) A school mission identifies the philosophy or underlying thrust of the school.
b) School values are a set of principles which guide the behaviour of all staff and students of the school.
c) School aims are clearly stated indicators of what the school wishes to achieve.

2. Together, the mission, values and aims encapsulate the purposes of the school. Therefore, they guide the Headteacher and other leaders in taking actions to realize school goals.

3. To derive classroom actions from a school aim, the Headteacher and staff must identify - across subjects, years and units - a set of enabling objectives to serve as building blocks towards the realization of the desired school aim. At the level of the lesson, the enabling objectives should specify precise behaviours, thereby clearly indicating actions.

4. It is important to ascertain that staff and other stakeholders are aware of the school mission, values and aims since people are likely to be more committed to the realization of goals which they know and understand.

Styles of Leadership and Management

Unit 2

As we have seen, the Headteacher should play a critical and determining role in achieving the central purpose of a school. Thus, his or her style of leadership is important since it will affect the school’s tone either positively or adversely.

The extent to which a Headteacher succeeds in attaining the school objectives and fulfilling the principles included in the mission statement depends on skilful development and use of a suitable leadership style. A successful style will depend largely on the Headteacher’s own personality. It will also depend on his or her being trained to realise that there is a range of ways of working with people.

The aim of this unit is to explain the various styles of leadership that the Headteacher can develop and use. It must be remembered that, although there are a range of styles and probably only one or two of them will be dominant for a particular Headteacher, he / she must be prepared to use different styles in different situations.

Individual study time: 4 hours

Learning outcomes
By the end of this unit you should be able to:
¨ explain various styles of leadership
¨ identify the strengths and weaknesses of each style
¨ describe the circumstances in which various styles of leadership may be best developed and used
¨match styles of leadership to given situations

Styles of leadership
For you to be an effective Headteacher, knowledge of different styles of manage­ment that may help you to achieve the school objectives will certainly be useful.

Activity 2.1
Read the following list, and use a few words to describe
1) your dominant leadership style
2) the dominant leadership style of your line manager (e.g. the District Education Officer).

Here are a few words to help you:-
(a) Problem solving
(b) Controlling
(c) Hands on / hands off
(d) Participatory
(e) Considerate of organizational and staff concerns

No two leaders have exactly the same way of doing things; life would become too predictable and dull if they did. If a manager is regarded as successful by those whom he or she is managing as well as by society at large, then perhaps we might excuse almost any form of leadership style. Although management textbooks may argue for particular styles, in fact if you study famous leaders from Guyana, you may well find that they display characteristics of less favoured styles. As you read the following descriptions, see if you can name people known to you, perhaps through the media, who fit each description. Note that we have included arguments both for and against each style.

Autocratic style
An autocratic style involves very little sense of the leader being accountable to anyone; he or she may do very much what they like. The Headteacher who subscribes to this style of leadership determines school policy alone and assigns duties to staff without consulting them. Directives are issued and must be carried out without question and in the prescribed manner.

Where people are coerced, controlled, directed and threatened, individual initiative may be stifled and self-motivation may be discouraged. In schools, it may lead to low morale amongst both staff and pupils. Low morale may, in turn, become the root cause of strikes, riots and staff turnover.

On the other hand, an autocratic style may provide a degree of certainty for those beneath the leader. They may feel safe because they do not have to be involved in solving problems. The autocratic leader usually has great self-confidence, a clear vision of what needs to be done, and the political skills to get things done. Many great figures in world history have been autocrats.

Laissez‑faire style (literally let‑do)

In theory, the Headteacher who uses this style of leadership believes that there should be no rules and regulations since everyone has an ‘inborn sense of responsibility’. Such a situation may well exist amongst mature, experienced teachers, but how would it work with new, young teachers fresh from the 'freedom years' of university or college? This style of management (or maybe mismanagement), where the Headteacher sits back and allows everyone to do as they please, might lead to anarchy and chaos, which would hardly be conducive to the provision of quality education.

But as the laissez‑style is opposite to the autocratic style, many of the criticisms of the latter become arguments in favour of the former. Thus individuals have to think for themselves and individual initia­tive and hard work may be well rewarded. A laissez‑faire environment may be more creative and fulfilling for those involved.

Democratic style
In this style, the Headteacher believes that the staff should be involved in decision-­making processes. Decisions are arrived at after consultation with the staff, and even with the pupils. A democratic style allows freedom of thought and action within the framework of the mission and objectives of the school.

Available skills and talents can be used optimally through delegation and the promotion of creativity, a sense of belonging and a higher degree of staff morale.

This style is based on the belief that

¨ where people are committed to the service of ideas which they have helped to frame, they will exercise self control, self direction and be motivated
¨ ideas will promote job interest and encourage both staff and students to set their own targets and find the best way of achieving them.

But democracy may not always work very well, when, for example, there is a lack of clarity as to how binding decisions will be reached. For example, in multi‑party states where there are too many parties (or one party states where there are too many factions), it may be extremely difficult to reach a consensus. You might also like to consider how a democratic style differs from a laissez‑faire style, and why clear leadership is still essential.

This style is often called “Participative” where the decision making is shared amongst the staff.

Transactional style
It has been argued that the transactional style may be the most effective style since it seeks a compromise between stressing organizational demands or goals and individual needs.

The Headteacher who subscribes to this style appreciates the need to achieve organizational goals while at the same time ensuring that the individual needs of staff members are not ignored. Although the Headteacher sticks to the rules and procedures, he or she also aims at achieving school objectives without upsetting people too much in terms of their needs.

It may sound as though achieving this balance between the needs of the organization and those of the individual is quite simple. Headteachers have to make decisions like this many times every day. For example: Should Teacher A be allowed time off in order to chase up a personnel matter with the TSC? Should the money raised by the PTA be used to purchase more textbooks or to renovate the Snackette? Only by analysing many decisions like this one will be able to see whether one is inclined more towards the needs of the organisation or the individuals, or one has achieved a true balance between them.

Contingency style
The Headteacher needs to realise that effectiveness in management depends on being able to diagnose and adapt to the dynamics of ever-changing situations. A contingency leadership style is where the Headteacher 'rides the waves', or deals with each problem as it arises.

One important function of the Headteacher is to communicate effectively to the staff the philosophy and objectives of the school and thus to gain their commit­ment to them. As a result, a useful contingency approach is that of the Path‑Goal Model. It states that an effective manager clarifies the means or paths by which subor­dinates can achieve both a high performance and job satisfaction. The moti­vation may be an appropriate reward and a focusing on paths or behaviours which can lead to successful job completion. This suggests that if some of the hurdles and barriers to motivation can be removed, a better performance by subordinates will result. Whatever approach is adopted will depend on individual employee characteristics (for example, ability, self‑confidence and needs) and the task characteristics (for example, the objectives and targets required).

In more simple terms, this style suggests that because we know that Headteachers and teachers will be faced with problems and issues every day, what we need to plan is how best to equip them to be able to handle these issues confidently and with a minimum of stress.

Instructional Style
The key function of a school is learning and with this style, the Headteacher focus on the learning of students and improving the effectiveness of teachers in the classroom. It will inevitable involve a considerable amount of lesson observation and analysis of the work practices of colleages. The Headteacher will monitor the work of the school staff, evaluate it and, alongside the teachers, help them to develop to become better at their work.

Transformational Style
Although similar in some respects to some of the styles above, the user of this way of working is concerned with capacity building in the organisation and ensuring that whatever is achieved can be sustained because the processes have been set up to allow continuous improvement to take place.

Moral Style
Although fairly self explanatory, the user of this style will be ensure that there are strong, shared and disseminated values within the institution.It will almost certainly have similarities to the democratic style in that the importance of the individual is paramount.

Managerial Style
Some might describe this style as one used by a Headteacher whose purpose is the efficient achievement of goals. He / she is concerned with the smooth running of the institution to create an atmosphere where effective development can take place.

Activity 2.2
Consider a representative teacher in your school. You are trying to improve his or her performance.
1) List some of the hurdles and barriers faced by this teacher.
2) Suggest three actions you could realistically take to enable the teacher to become more effective in the school
3) Now consider your answer. Which styles of leadership did you use and why?

Everyone is faced with hurdles and barriers every day. Perhaps the best thing we can do is to develop in ourselves and our staff (and the pupils) skills to be able to handle many different types of situation. Thus devel­oping oral and writing skills and interpersonal skills (relating and working with other people) should give us more confidence to handle difficulties and to be more effective. Of course, you will also need to help both individual teachers and the staff as a whole with personal welfare and employment matters and in their professional development.

Activity 2.3
Consider yourself and each of the nine leadership styles considered above.
1) For each style give an example of a recent occasion when you have behaved in a style similar to the description.
2) Place the nine styles in a rank order which reflects your own preferred approach to leadership. You might compare your answer with someone else who has done this exercise and ask them to rate your styles.
3) Get a colleague to tell you what style or styles he or she thinks you display.

You will probably find that you display elements of each style. It would be wrong to suggest that any one style is right and another wrong, since each may work in a particular situation. You might be surprised by the difference between how you perceive yourself and how others perceive you!

Case study
Read carefully through the case study below:

Jamoon Grove Secondary School
Jamoon Grove Secondary is a Grade A, senior secondary school located in a residential area of Georgetown. The grounds cover 5 acres in which there is a large three storey L shaped building and playing fields.

In the building there are 26 classrooms, three science laboratories, three technical/vocational rooms, a library, a computer room and an administration block which comprises a general office, the Headteacher’s office, staff room and assembly hall.

There are 47 members on the teaching staff including the Headteacher, her deputy, 3 senior teachers (SMs). Sixty per cent of the staff are graduates. The remaining staff are qualified trained teachers.

The support staff comprises an administrative officer, two typist /clerks, 1 office assistant, and 5 general workers including a handyman.

The student body numbers 750 and is drawn from the top performers of the Grade 6 Exams. While the majority of the students are from middle to high income families, some are from lower income homes. Among this latter group are some students who require assistance to gain daily hot meals and basic items of school clothing.

There is a prefect body to assist in the smooth running of the school. They are led by a Head Boy and Girl and are entrusted with certain duties delegated by the school management.

The academic week is five days of seven 35 minute periods. The number of periods to be taught per week for each subject/year group is laid down by the Ministry.

Every student does a core programme of English Language, Spanish, English Literature, History, Geography, Mathematics, Integrated Science and Information Technology as well as one subject from Art, Technical Drawing, Food and Nutrition and Music . There are Ministry appointed Heads of Department for Languages, Mathematics and Science, Social Studies, Information Technology and Technical Vocational Subjects.

The Headteacher expects every staff member and student to participate in the co-curricular programme by enrolling for one sport and one club option. Sport options include Cricket, Football, Volleyball, Basketball, Badminton, Table Tennis, Athletics and Netball. Club options include Music, Chess, Debate, Drama, Art, Science, Bible and Gymnastics. Sports practices are held on two afternoons each week while clubs meet once per week. Inter-school fixtures for athletics occur once per year but inter-school competitions in other sports vary in regularity.

Assembly for the whole school is held daily in the hall and conducted by the Headteacher or Deputy Headteacher, both of whom enter the hall after the staff and students are assembled. Attendance is compulsory for all.

Activity 2.4
Many management decisions are needed to ensure that Jamoon Grove
Secondary School runs smoothly and effectively:

1) Which style of leadership would you use to reach decisions on the following components of decision‑making in the school?
¨ the timetable;
¨ the co‑curricular programmes;
¨ a fire in one of the laboratories;
¨ homework policies;
¨ the prefects' duties;
¨ transport problems?
2) Why would you use the particular style you have selected in each case?

We are not going to suggest a particular answer here, since the answers will vary with the initiative and the personality of the individual. In all these areas clear policies are needed. The way in which you decide to form them will depend on such factors as:
· your own expertise in each area
· the extent to which other people (whether individuals or groups) have a vested interest in the policy
· the level of expertise of these people and their ability to communicate effectively
· the degree of urgency of the task.

From the above discussions and activities on Leadership Styles, you should now be able to see that no single style can solve or be a cure for all problems arising in management situations. Problems do not arise so much from a 'bad' style of leadership but rather from the wrong choice of style for that occasion. Success in the leadership of a school by a Headteacher will be more certainly assured if the appropriate style of leadership for a particular situation is used.

Needs Analysis

Unit 3

In your central role as Headteacher of your school you need to be clear in your mind about which factors will most likely result in the greatest success for the institution. One of the key factors will be the clarity of your under­standing of the various needs and requirements of the different sections or groups that make up the school. This clarity will depend on your under­standing of your position in the school community.

The aim of this unit is to assist you, as the Headteacher, in the difficult task of identifying the needs of the school. To enable you to do this, you first should be able to identify the needs of the various components which, together, make up the sum total of the school's needs.

Individual study time: 6 hours

Learning outcomes
By the end of this unit you should be able to:
¨ explain the meaning of term “Needs Analysis”
¨ identify the various sections or groups whose needs constitute the needs of the school overall
¨ identify the needs of each of these groups and relate them to the school's overall needs
¨ suggest strategies that you could utilise to identify the needs of these groups
¨ attempt to work out evaluation strategies that can be used to check whether the various needs have been adequately identified and satisfied.

Consider the meaning of the title of this unit 'needs analysis' and briefly explain what you understand by it and the implications of carrying it out

In considering the above activity you may have looked up in a dictionary where various meanings of the root words 'need' and 'analysis' and their derivatives are given. The remarks made in the introduction to this unit may also have helped.

Thus, you should have deduced that 'needs analysis' refers to determination of the information and resources you require to enable you to do your work more effectively

But to say this is easier than doing it for various reasons. Firstly, your own needs as an individual are forever changing as you grow more experienced and you take on greater responsibility. Secondly, the nature of your job, whether as teacher or Headteacher, continues to evolve, partly because of the results of the development of Guyana as a whole, but also because of new inventions and the changing relation­ship of the human race to the planet we live on. Thus, to identify and satisfy both our personal and professional needs is a complex business.

Identifying needs
In a learning society such as the one we are creating, the purpose of the school is to equip students with the knowledge and skills necessary to develop themselves, their communities and the nation. All other functions and needs within the school will centre on realising this purpose. Thus we will begin our discussion by considering the needs of the pupils.

The needs of the pupils

Activity 3.1
Using one of your classes (at any level), ask the students to list what they want from their school and what they feel it needs to improve. They could perhaps do it in pairs and report back to you.

Briefly analyze the results of their discussions.

If the above activity was clearly understood by the pupils, it should have generated a useful basis for identifying the pupils' needs.

Did your pupils identify any of the following?
¨ a relaxation of discipline by either the staff or prefects or both
¨ good exam results, which will enable them to go for further training or get a job
¨ more funds for extra curricular activities
¨ the removal of some teachers and/or the demotion of some prefects
¨ more learning materials and equipment
¨ longer or shorter school holidays?

It may be that the pupils' answers may be incomplete, or perhaps focus too much on their immediate needs, rather than on larger, longer‑term needs. Perhaps, then, you could add to the items they have identified. Among possible additions will be an enriched learning experience and improved performance in Mathematics and English.

The needs of the school authority
In Guyana, the majority of schools are owned and run by the state. There are also a considerable number of privately funded schools, most of which are recognised by the Ministry of Education and some which are not. Guyana is well on the way to achieving the Millennium Goals at each level of education. However, the system still has considerable needs.

Each school was set up with a purpose when it was founded. As a school Headteacher, you must understand and identify with the needs of the authority which established and owns your school. In most cases this will be the Government of Guyana, possibly a religious institution or some other educational body.

Activity 3.2
The needs of the authority which owns your school may be very specific to it. Identify up to three of these needs. If your school is one of the majority state-owned schools, consider the specific needs of Guyana as a nation which will be reflected in the education provided.

Where a school is privately owned, the majority will have the intention of providing excellent educational opportunities for children. Owners will wish their schools to produce well‑qualified and responsible graduates who achieve, according to their capabilities, in their chosen field and in society at large, and thus bringing credit and benefits to the school. Some school may have more specific needs. Religious bodies are clearly concerned with the moral and spiritual qualities of the pupils and how these feed back to the community as a whole.

National needs
The purpose of the school also hinges on the satisfaction of national needs. Therefore, you will need to base your school's mission and objectives on a sound understanding of national policy statements made by central govern­ment which affect education at school level. Apart from such documents as Education Acts, there are such statements of intent as:
· levels of basic literacy and numeracy
· inclusive education for children with Special Educational Needs
· education for self‑reliance
· education for the development of the nation
· education to address disadvantaged groups
· commitment to policies for providing a specific philosophy of educational provision to meet national needs

It is absolutely necessary that you fully understand, after debate where necessary, and implement national policies in education as spelt out by the Ministry of Education and the Government of Guyana. Thus you will need to ensure that your own school mission statement is in line with central government policy statements. No Headteacher should consider operating against the grain of a government's policies.

Activity 3.3
Identify and list the main needs in education as spelt out in Guyana’s education policies.

The earlier discussion will have given you some ideas on the types of needs you may identify in Guyana' policy statements. As school Headteacher you will need to discuss your list with your deputy and senior teachers to verify your understanding of the key needs.

The needs of the community and parents
The school serves the local community and this, for the most part, is represented by the parents. These parents will have aspirations for their children and the school must make every effort to meet them. Where these aspirations cannot be articulated by the parental body, perhaps through lack of education on their part, the school must assist them in identifying what it is they want from a quality education.

Activity 3.4
Next time you organize or attend a meeting of the Parent ‑Teacher Association, or have a meeting with leading community members, ask them to identify for you some of the things which they seek or need from the school of which you are the Headteacher.

There are likely to be differences in the types of response you get from both parents and communities according to their own levels of education. Where these are relatively low where, maybe, a significant proportion of the parents are illiterate, the parents may be surprised to be asked such a ques­tion. They may feel this is something the school Headteacher should know; indeed it would be reason why he or she was employed. Their lack of experience in articulating their needs should not be used by you as an excuse for not pursuing this question further.

More literate parents and communities are likely to be more demanding, as, of course, is their right. By involving parents and community members more, the school staff and pupils will be made much more aware of the fact that they are accountable for the content and the processes of the curriculum, and for the standards of achievement reached by the pupils.

Staff needs
Staff are employed to meet the needs of the school community in which they work. However, they have their own needs too, whether they be professional or personal. The Headteacher must take account of these and ensure that, where possible, they are met so that skills may be used to improve the quality of education and lack of skill will not hinder the progress of the children.

Activity 3.5
Consider a relatively new and inexperienced member of staff. What would you identify as his /her main needs? It might be helpful to discuss this with such a member of staff.

Clearly, as school Headteacher, you must fully appreciate that you can only accomplish the educational goals and mission of your school by working with and through others, especially your staff. Thus, you must understand your staff's needs, both as individuals and as a group. For practical reasons much of the time their needs will be looked at from your point of view, rather than their own. However, from time to time it is necessary for you to ask them what they see as their needs. Some of their needs may include:
· a clear job description in writing
· provision for professional development and growth for all staff.
· adequate supervision of their teaching
· sound deployment of both teaching and non‑teaching staff
· a clear statement of the school's mission and objectives, and agreed targets
· adequate support materials and infrastructure
· a positive, supportive school climate.

The needs of the Headteacher and the school
You no doubt noted that there is a lot of common ground between the Headteacher's needs and those of the school. However, it must be made clear that the Headteacher has needs of his or her own which are over and above those that are purely the needs of the school.

Activity 3.6

1) Look at the requirements of a Headteacher below. Assess your own needs against this person specification

¨ adequate academic and professional qualifications
¨ a full knowledge of the methods and techniques of educational practice
¨ an ability to provide professional leadership to all sections of the school community
¨ an understanding of the interdependence of the various sections of the school community
¨ sound knowledge of school finance, including accounting procedures
¨ an ability to understand each part of the school curriculum and how each part relates to the learning programme as a whole
¨ an ability to plan ahead and to bring such plans to full fruition
¨ an ability to communicate with, motivate and harmonise the various sections of the school community to work in the interests of the school
¨ a capacity for sound public relations with those sections of the public with an interest in the school
¨ a capacity to work effectively and efficiently with, and through, other people, singly and in groups
¨ a full understanding of both the national goals in education as well as the mission of the school.

2) Now consider the needs of your school overall? Look at the list below and identify some of the needs that your school may have.
¨ adequate infrastructure and equipment
¨ adequate funding to meet capital and running costs
¨ a caring, helpful and involved community and parent body
¨ central government's support, funding and assistance in line with what other similar schools receive
¨ a committed Headteacher to manage the school effectively
¨ a suitably qualified, experienced and devoted staff, capable of delivering the curriculum
¨ a pupil population that is committed to making full use of the educa­tional facilities provided, and obtaining an education that enables them to realise their fullest potential
¨ a sound, acceptable purpose or mission to guide the school towards worthwhile objectives and targets.

As the school Headteacher, you need to identify and satisfy both your own needs and those of the school. Staff, Pupils, the School, the Community, Headteacher, Parents

As the Headteacher you will have to identify the school's needs, your own needs, as
well as the needs of all the other sections and groups involved in the school.

How this should be done will become clearer as you proceed with this unit.

Strategies for identifying needs
What do you understand by the meaning of the word ‘strategies’?

The meaning of 'strategy' hinges on plans or approaches towards accom­plishing desired goals. There is the implication here that the school mission and objectives are not easy to accomplish because many alternative paths are available, each of which requires careful consideration before a choice is made.

The discussion on needs analysis so far has concentrated on identifying what the needs are likely to be rather than on the strategies required to be able to find out what these needs are.

Strategies for the pupils
As Headteacher you should involve yourself in all teaching / learning programmes in and out of the classroom to enable you to gain insights into the needs of your pupils on a first‑hand basis. The following are strategies that you might use to make contact with your pupils.

¨ Use your contact periods with various classes to learn about pupils' needs.
¨ Use the prefect and monitor systems to channel information about pupils' needs to both yourself as the Headteacher and to your staff.
¨ Invite your staff individually and in groups to discuss and report on pupils' needs to you regularly.
¨ Utilise a suggestions /needs box to collect information, confidentially, from the pupils.
¨ Undertake audits and physical checks on all school supplies: this may indicate areas of deficiency.
¨ You and your staff ‑ particularly your senior staff ‑ must regularly audit and check the curriculum for relevance and balance, and for the effectiveness of delivery.

Strategies for the school authority
What strategies might you use to identify the needs of your school authority (private schools) or the Ministry of Education (public schools)?

Appropriate strategies might include:

¨ Holding regular meetings and consultations with the school authority to ensure that you fully identify with their needs for the school involving yourself in formal and informal get‑togethers with representa­tives of the authority
¨ Requesting information directly from the authority
¨ Involving the more articulate of the authority's representatives to directly identify their needs to the staff and pupils.
¨ Reading Ministry of Education documentation, strategy documents and policy positions.
¨ Discussions with the Regional Education Officer

Strategies for the Nation
What strategies might you use to identify the national needs in education?

You may have come up with the following strategies:
¨ the thorough study and understanding of the Education Acts, policy statements, and central government's position papers on education ‑ it is likely that these will also be described and debated fully in the press and the broadcasting media
¨ wherever and whenever possible, direct consultation with national policy makers and senior staff in the Ministry of Education and Regional Departments of Education.

Having identified the needs at national level you will need to blend these into the mission statement, objectives and targets of your school.

Strategies for the community and parents

Activity 3.7
We have already suggested in Activity 3.5 that you might be able to identify the needs of the community and of parents by asking them directly. What other strategies might be used?

Appropriate strategies might include:

¨ You could seek to develop and maintain sound communication and good public relations with both the community and more especially the parents. This will assist you in identifying their needs and expectations for the school.
¨ You could involve parents more directly in relevant school programmes, for example, special school functions, sporting competitions, etc. Such involvement should enable a less formal relationship to develop.
¨ Parent ‑Teacher meetings involving representatives of the community should be used to identify needs.
¨ Pay close attention to school‑related information and ideas in the local and national press and other media, for example, letters to the editor and editorials, as well as anonymous letters or telephone calls received in the school.

Strategies for the Headteacher and the school

Look at some of the strategies below that might be used to enable you as the Headteacher to identify your own needs and those of your school.

Which of the following do you think might be most useful for you?

¨ Study management, organizational, behavioural and educational theories.
¨ Attend staff development courses, seminars and workshops for Headteachers in particular and managers in general.
¨ Through informal discussion, draw from the professional experience and advice of your fellow Headteachers.
¨ Join and participate fully in professional associations, unions or organizations for Headteachers (and managers).
¨ Visit an industrial or commercial organization to learn about how they set about identifying needs.
¨ Analyse the responses given by individual teachers during their annual appraisal or evaluation interviews.
¨ Utilise inputs from your staff obtained during staff meetings, and informal discussions with individuals or groups.
¨ Note the needs identified by parents during Parent Teacher Association Meetings, as well as those obtained in informal discussions with individuals or groups of parents.
¨ Draw from, and directly request, inputs from your deputy, senior teachers, Heads of departments, and other promoted staff.
¨ Your pupils can contribute through channeling information through the prefects and directly during contact lessons with form teachers and the Headteacher.
¨ Study current educational and professional journals and magazines to gather ideas about your needs.
¨ Obtain documents on national policy and statements by the school authority on its mission and current targets.

Strategies for the staff

Activity 3.8
What strategies might you use to identify the needs of your staff?

Of particular importance in this regard is the crucial role of the staff in the delivery of the curriculum. For them to perform this function effectively they, in turn, need your professional guidance. You can only give mean­ingful support in this regard if you first establish strategies to identify, as far as possible, the needs of each and every one of your teachers. In particular both you and your staff will wish to identify the performance gaps of each of them.

The strategies you may have identified include:

¨ You appraise each teacher, through a formal cycle of contact once a year, to establish their strengths and weaknesses, likes and dislikes. Guyana has an appraisal (or evaluation) system which is applied to all teachers and senior leaders. This is the “Annual Appraisal Report on Teachers”. A fuller discussion about appraisal procedures is covered in Module 3, Personnel Management.
¨ You supervise all your staff every day, as well as meeting with them on both formal and informal occasions.
¨ You study the subject evaluation reports compiled by inspectors.
¨ You require your staff to complete carefully designed questionnaires that identify staff, pupil and school needs.
¨ You check schemes of work, lesson plans and other school records at regular intervals. The pupils' exercise books should be regularly monitored in every subject and at every level.
Once you have established the needs of individual teachers and groups, or categories of teachers or departments, then your duty becomes one of finding ways of closing the performance gaps.

These might include:

¨ purposeful programmes of school‑based and school‑managed staff development
¨ staff meetings which are centered on professional topics
¨ closer positive supervision of those members of staff whose performance gaps require it
¨ finding ways of ensuring teachers’ welfare
¨ looking at ways of managing stress
¨ more direct assistance by you, the Headteacher, to individual teachers and groups who require any assistance: you should also utilize those of your staff whose good performance is such that they may give assistance to their colleagues, since peer support amongst teachers is always to be encouraged.

The purpose of this unit has been to help you recognise the importance of finding out from others what they want from your school. Different people need different things, and the nature and balance of these will vary with time. Knowing how to find out what people want is one key to enable you, as the school Headteacher, to provide effective leadership.

However, it is important, as we will remind you from time to time, to remember you what is the prime function of the school i.e. the provision of quality learning and teaching in an environment that is focused on maintaining high standards. Any need which does not directly or indirectly have an impact on these principle aims should be questioned.

The sum of the needs analysis of all of the various groups and individuals in the school, including yourself, will be the Needs Profile of the school. It is up to you, as Headteacher, to make sense of this and provide appropriate strategies to meet those needs.

Job Analysis

Unit 4

The Headteacher, as a leader, needs to understand what headship entails. Understanding what constitutes the job of a Headteacher should enable you to discharge your duties and responsibilities more effectively and efficiently A clear perception of your duties should provide you with a framework for self‑appraisal. It should make it easier for you to delegate duties. The purpose of this unit is to explain the concepts of job analysis, job description and person specification in order to enable you to appreciate better the complex­ities of your role in school improvement.

Individual study time: 4 hours

Learning outcomes
By the end of this unit you should be able to:

¨ distinguish between job analysis, job description and person specification
¨ indicate the range and nature of the factors that affect your job operation
¨ identify aspects of your job description
¨ describe the attributes of an effective Headteacher.

Job analysis
A job analysis involves dividing a job into its component parts. It consists of two elements: the job description, which covers the tasks to be done, and the person specification, which tells us about the sort of person who is most likely to be able to do the job.

Job description

A job description indicates the tasks and responsibilities to be undertaken. It is also essential for the appraisal of staff performance. Therefore, each member of your staff should be aware of his or her job description. As Headteacher, you should be aware not only of your own job description but also of the job descriptions of your staff.

Drawing up a job description for a Headteacher can be a difficult task. There is an argument that Headteachers should not carry out routine tasks related to the administration of their schools. Their role, as the lead professional, is to ensure quality learning and teaching in a disciplined atmosphere and to challenge the staff to achieve this. However, this concept is probably impractical in the majority of Guyanese schools at present due to shortage of staff and various resource issues. However, we should not stray from the principle role of the Headteacher and this must be strongly reflected in his / her job description – that is the promotion of a quality learning institution in a closely controlled environment of work, study and play at appropriate times.

As a school Headteacher you will also appreciate that each school situation demands that particular tasks be performed. Your own perceptions of the job of a Headteacher will determine how you decide each task should be undertaken and the importance you give to it.

If you were to list all of the things that you do as Headteacher of a school, it would run into hundreds of items. This would be the process which is referred to as 'job analysis', that is, the identification of the compo­nent parts of your job. The process of job analysis should help to provide you with a checklist of tasks which you need to perform.

The following breakdown of the role of the Headteacher, which is intended to be indicative rather than prescriptive, will help you to consider some of the issues.

¨ ensuring that the mission, objectives and targets for the school are set and achieved.
¨ promoting a learning community
¨ managing curriculum design, implementation and evaluation
¨ mobilising and managing resources
¨ setting up an effective organizational structure within the school
¨ deploying staff
¨ supervising staff
¨ supervising pupils
¨ organising in‑school staff development programmes
¨ promoting and maintaining good discipline
¨ ensuring the maintenance of the school plant
¨ ensuring clear communications within the school between yourself, and the staff, and the pupils
¨ maintaining good public relations with parents, and the Ministry of Education
¨ keeping full and up‑to‑date records and information about the school

The main elements of a job description should be:

¨ a title ‑ this follows the nationally agreed system
¨ the job description should be divided into two main parts – role and responsibility. The former refers to the requirement of the Headteacher to set the tone for the school as well as creating its vision and ethos. The latter is a statement of the main tasks ‑ it is necessary to separate them out before placing them in logical groups
¨ an indication of the person or group to whom the individual is account­able ‑ for a school Headteacher this is likely to be the District Education Officer and / or the Board of Governors
¨ an indication of the authority the individual has over other staff
¨ an indication of the nature of such relationships should be included, as we are stressing how the school Headteacher (and the staff) should relate to other people involved with the school,

One of the problems with creating your own list, based on the realities of your normal day, is that it is probably quite long. Questions which arise from an analysis like this include:

¨ Am I doing what I should be doing?
¨ Am I trying to do too many things?
¨ Might some of these tasks be as well done by other teachers?
¨ Is there a balance in the tasks I do, between, for example, dealing with:
o short‑term, crisis matters, for example, an absent teacher; medium‑term matters, for example, the timetable for next term; and long‑term matters, for example, a review of practices and setting of targets
o resource issues, such as repairs and books, and people issues, such as communicating with staff
o personnel matters, such as the payment of staff, and matters such as organising the exams
o dealing with pupils, and teachers, and parents?

When you have identified your overall role and your responsibilities, the latter need to be placed in clear categories and should not be presented as an undifferentiated mass.

Below is an example of a Job Description for a Headteacher. Notice that it is divided into sections for Role and Responsibility.

Role of Headteacher
¨ To help and maintain, through his / her commitment, the ethos of the school so that staff and pupils may actively develop fully in personal, professional and educational terms.
¨ To be a member of the Senior Leadership Team, initiating procedures and policies and carrying out those agreed by the S.L.T.
¨ To take a prominent role in the day to day running of the school.
¨ To monitor the work of the staff and pupils of the school in all aspects of their work.
¨ To evaluate the work of the staff and pupils of the school and, in the light of this evaluation, take a leading role in the school’s future development.
¨ To ensure the maintenance of good order and discipline amongst pupils at all times.
¨ To promote good relationships with parents, governors, the local community and Regional Department of Education
¨ To promote the aims and objectives of the school.

Specific Responsibilities

¨ Creating an environment which is conducive to effective learning and which meets the physical, emotional and educational needs of pupils.
¨ Maintaining a partnership between the school, parents and governors and ensuring that the school is a meaningful aspect of the local community.
¨ Defining the educational goals of the school and setting these out in the development plan in consultation with the staff, parents and the Regional Department of Education so that it meets the national statutory requirements..
¨ Developing a curriculum which meets the requirements of the latest Education Act and successive Education Acts and which responds to the needs of all pupils.
¨ Reviewing the curriculum so that the quality of pupil learning can be improved and educational disadvantages minimised.
¨ Ensuring that an effective system for assessing and recording the progress of each child exists in accordance with statutory national responsibilities and local policies and ensuring that the aims related to each child’s learning are achieved.
¨ Ensuring a supportive system of pastoral care for all pupils which contributes to their effective learning, and developing coherent recording and reporting procedures.
¨ Developing a coherent and accountable management, administrative and organisational structure within the school which ensures that the curricular and learning needs of pupils are met.
¨ Establishing an effective professional development programme for teachers which includes whole staff development and school focused training in line with M.O.E. policies
¨ Monitoring and evaluating all aspects of the work of the school in collaboration with staff, governors and the Regional Department of Education.
¨ Working in close collaboration with the M.O.E. and Regional Education Department and with officers and inspectors on relevant matters.
¨ Establishing an effective communications system within the school, with parents, governors and the community and with the Regional Education Department.

Assessing the Quality of Learning and Teaching
This aspect of the role of the Headteacher is so important that it deserves a separate section on its own. The prime function of a school is to enable its students to learn. This can often be forgotten with the mass of administrative tasks and day to day managerial issues that have to be dealt with. However, despite all of this it is still the school’s prime function.

A Headteacher, along with senior staff who will have duties delegated to them, needs to promote continuously quality learning and teaching at every level. This not only involves, coaching, nurturing and training but also monitoring and evaluating that quality of learning.

This is all of little use unless it is accompanied by a process of staff development which will ensure quality at every level. If you like, this is inspection and self evaluation at the level of the school and the departments within it but done in a supportive, encouraging and helpful way. It needs to be a non-threatening environment where professional discussion can take place without being overcome by personal considerations.

In assessing your teachers’ skills, you and your senior staff would need to:

¨ observe their lessons on a regular basis
¨ provide feedback
¨ discuss the lesson plans with the teachers
¨ study the teacher's schemes of work
¨ discuss the strengths and weakness of each lesson observed with the teacher
¨ write up a report to identify further development and set appropriate targets.

In making this analysis of just one task you may clearly see that there are many elements. The same is true for all the other tasks in which you might be involved, such as organising exams, ensuring staff are paid, or reviewing practices and setting targets. Thus when the job description of a Headteacher is written, or you write job descriptions for members of your staff, then account must be taken of these elements, to ensure that the person will not be over‑ (or under‑) loaded.

Person specification
A person specification refers to the type of individual you want in terms of their qualities, qualifications, background and experience. If these attributes are to be assessed accurately, a comprehensive job description which outlines the role and responsibilities of the post must be prepared first of all.

Activity 4.3
Consider your own job as school Headteacher. Write a list of the qualities you would include in a person specification for your own post using the following headings: background; abilities and skills; motivation and interest; attitudes.

Below are examples of the type of item that might be found in a person specification

· professional and academic qualifications required
· a diplomatic and skilful negotiator
· an enthusiastic and energetic person whose approach to work is businesslike
· a resourceful individual full of initiative
· a successful teacher
· a good personnel manager who can handle sensitive issues and also motivate pupils, teachers and parents to give of their best at all times.

Below is an example of a Person Specification for a Deputy Headteacher

1. Qualifications

¨ Qualified Teacher (Essential)
¨ First Degree (Desirable)
¨ Recent and relevant In Service training

2. Experience
¨ Relevant teaching experience and a proven record of high quality teaching
¨ Currently employed in a senior leadership post in a secondary school
¨ Ability to handle a range of management tasks
¨ A proven record of managing staff
¨ A proven record of meeting the needs of the professional development of staff
¨ Ability to demonstrate the ability to lead initiatives leading to success which can be measured
¨ Ability meet the needs of a school with a high proportion of SEN provision.
¨ A proven record of excellent classroom management

3. Skills
¨ Demonstrate a thorough understanding of the requirements needed to carry out the main responsibilities
¨ Demonstrate a thorough understanding of whole school issues
¨ Demonstrate an understanding of the needs of children of all abilities
¨ Demonstrate an understanding of monitoring progress
¨ Demonstrate an understanding of school development planning
¨ Demonstrate an understanding of budgetary control
¨ Demonstrate an understanding of the issues in promoting schools
¨ The ability to lead and be part of a team

4. Personal qualities
¨ Good communication skills for a variety of audiences, both verbally and written.
¨ High expectations of staff and pupils
¨ Expectation of high standards of pupil behaviour
¨ The ability to be able to work well under pressure and to respond quickly and appropriately to situations which may arise in a school
¨ Confident, positive and a sense of direction
¨ Approachable by all members of the school community
¨ A real commitment to raising the achievement of all pupils
¨ A desire to consult
¨ Ability to motivate staff and pupils

Activity 4.4
Using the guidelines from this unit, revise the job description for either your
Deputy Headteacher, Senior Teachers, Heads of Departments or Level Heads.

If a job description does not exist, write one.

You should share the results of this activity with other school Headteachers, and with your local DEO or line‑manager, to see how they can help.

After going through this unit, you should now be able to explain and distin­guish between the concepts of:

¨ job analysis (breaking a job into its compo­nents);
¨ job description (what the job entails);
¨ person specification (the qualities of the person you require for the job).

In this unit we have emphasised the job analysis of the Headteacher, but you must be able to prepare analyses for every member of your staff. You also need to be sure that all members of your staff are aware of their job descriptions.

A job description is essential if later on you are to carry out an appraisal of the work of any member of staff or the performance of a staff member falls short of expectations and capability procedures need to be initiated.

In considering all of these issues, you should refer to the Ministry of Education Desk Manual for School Administrators.